CONJUNCTIONS

CONJUNCTIONS (KATA SAMBUNG)

Conjunction ialah kata sambung yang dipakai untuk menghubungkan/menggabungkan kata-kata,frase atau klausa dalam sebuah kalimat. Dan kebanyakan dari conjunction ini berasal dari parts of speech yang lain,khususnya dari preposition.
Eg. Rama and Shinta came yesterday
I have breakfast before I go to school
Here : rama disambungkan dengan shinta oleh kata and dan kalimat Igo to school disambungkan dengan kalimat I have breakfast oleh kata before. Jadi and dan before adalah kata sambung (penghubung).

TYPES OF CONJUNCTION (JENIS-JENIS KATA SAMBUNG)

1. Coordinating conjunction ialah kata sambung yang digunakan untuk menggabungkan unsure-unsur dalam kalimat yang mempunyai tingkat yang setara
Berdasarkan pengertian diatas coordinating conjunction dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 4 macam

a. Comulative conjunction adalah kelompok kata penghubung yang berfungsi mempunyai arti mengumpulkan/menambah and (dan)both…and…(keduanya dari…dan…) and also (dan juga), as well as (dan/juga/maupun), not only…but also (tidak hanya…tapi juga…) again (lagi/lagipula), furthermore (lebih-lebih), likewise (seperti itu pula), besides (disamping itu), moreover (lebih-lebih lagi), in addition (tambahan lagi)
– Ita, as well as Anis, invites me to come soon
– Ita is beautiful and diligent
– Not only ita is beautiful but she is also diligent

b. Alternative conjunction yaitu kelompok kata penghubung yang mengandung pengertian alternative atau pilihan antara dua atau lebih.
Or (atau), either…or…(…atau), or else…(atau juga…), otherwise…(kalau tidak…), neither…nor…(bukan…ataupun…)
– Either that boy sinned or his parents
– Neither ita not Anis is a teacher
– You must take rest otherwise you will lose your health
Catatan :
Neither…not…selalu diikuti tobeatau kata kerja positif.walaupun demikian pengertian dari pola ini selalu negative.

c. Adversative conjunction yaitu kelompok kata penghubung yang mengandung arti pertentangan antara satu bagian denagn bagian yg lain.
But,however (tetapi), though,although, eventhough (meskipun), inspite of, despite (meskipun), regardless (tanpa memedulikan) yet (meskipun begitu), nevertheless (namun), while (sedangkan,walaupun), still (namun), whereas (padahal,sedangkan)
– He is clever man nevertheless he often makes mistakes
– Wise men love truth, whereas fools shun it
Catatan :
Although dan inspite of mempunyai arti sama tapi penggunaannya berbeda. Although diikuti kalimat lengkap sedangkan inspite of tidak.
He went out although it was raining
He went out inspite of the rain

d. Illative conjunction yaitu kelompok kata penghubung yang menunjukkan pengertian sebab akibat dari suatu peristiwa atau perbuatan yang lain. Atau menunjukkan kesimpulan therefore (oleh karena itu), thus (jadi), consequently (karenanya), because of (sebab itu), as a result (sehingga),accordingly (maka,jadi), hence (karenanya,sebab itu), so (jadi), for this reason (untuk itu), regardless of (bagaimanapun), so then (maka), for (karena).
– She is very busy accordingly,she can’t see you
– Father is ill,therefore,he can’t come today
– It is time to go, so then let us start

e. Conjunction yang menunjukkan hubungan sebab akibat dengan tekanan pada sebab
Because, because of, since, as, for (sebab)
– It is hard to speak English because we never practice it
– Because of you, I can speak English
Catatan :
“since”diletakkan di awal kalimat sedangkan “for”ditengah kalimat
– Since it was raining heavily, he just stayed at home
– He just stayed at home for it was raining heavily

“Because” selalu diikuti kalimat lengkap, sedangkan “because of” selalu diikuti noun
– Ita can not sleep well because it is very hot
– Ita can not sleep well because of the heat

f. Conjunction yang menunjukkan hubungan sebab akibat dengan tekanan akibat
So that (sehingga), in order to (agar supaya/untuk)
– You must buy a dictionary so that you can look up word by word

g. Conjunction yang menunjukkan waktu
As, when, while, before, after, until
– She had gone when ita visited her
– I had waited for you until your mother came

h. Conjunction yang menggabungkan dua kalimat tanpa melebur menjadi Satu
However, nevertheless (walaupun begitu, walaupun demikian), on the other hand, in contrast, inspite of this (sebaliknya) besides, moreover, semilliary (disamping itu,selain itu,dengan itu)
– Ita is very tired,therefore she can’t sleep well
– Anis was tired, however, she went on working for her family

2. Subordinate conjunction ialah kata sambung yang digunakan untuk menggabungkan anak kalimat (subordinate clause) dengan induk kalimat (main clause) dalam kalimat majemuk bertingkat (complex sentence). Kebanyakan dari subordinate conjunction ini berasal dari preposition,anak kalimat diawali subordinating conjunction,tidak dapat berdiri sendiri,artinya bergantung pada pokok kalimat atau induk kalimat. Sedangkan pokok kalimat dapat berdiri sendiri,artinya tidak tergantung dengan clause (sekumpulan kata yang mengandung subject dan predikat)yang lain.
Cara ketergantungan (modes of dependence) berjumlah Sembilan,yaitu :
a. Keterangan tambahan (opposition) yang hanya dalam pengertian pengantar/perkenalan
Principle clause dependent clause
He made a promise that he would return soon

b. Sebab atau alasan
Principle clause dependent clause
We can do nothing as he refuses
He couldn’t go because he was ill
He will succed since he has studied hard

c. Akibat atau pengaruh
Principle clause dependent clause
He ran so fast that he made himself tired

d. Maksud atau tujuan
Principle clause dependent clause
He shouted at the top of in order that he might be heard his voice
We eat so that we may live
He worked hard lets he should fail

e. Syarat
Principle clause dependent clause
I will go out tomorrow if it is fine
I will come unless I hear to the contrary
I will come provided that I am well enough
I will come provided Iam well enough
He talk as if he were drunk
We must do as we are told whether we wish it or no

f. Pernyataan mengalah (concession) atau contras
Principle clause dependent clause
He worked hard even though he was tire
He is an honest man though/although he is poor
He will never succed however much he may try
He is still asleep notwithstanding that he has already slept for eight hours
Catatan :
• Concessive : terutama tentang kata sambung yang menyatakan mengalah misalnya though,although,even though dan sebagainya. Though atau although boleh juga diletakkan di posisi awal anak kalimat dan dipisahkan dengan kalimat utama menggunakan tanda koma (,).
Although he was tired, he worked hard
Dependent principal
Though/although
He was tired he worked hard

Namun lebih umum
Principal dependent
He work hard even though he was tired
He was tired but he worked hard

• Konjungsi however bila dipakai sebagai kata smbung sederajat (codinative conjunction), berdiri sendiri,dan lazimnya diletakkan pada suatu tempat di tengah kalimatnya. Akan tetapi bila ia (however) merupakan subordinative (kata sambung yang menghubungkan kalimat pokok dengan anak kalimat), ia harus diletakkan dimuka adverb atau adjective tertentu dan selalu ditempatkan pada awal kalimat.

Dependent principal
However hard you may work you will never be able to succed

• Bila as dipakai dalam pengertian konsesif(concessive) atau kontras, ia selalu didahului oleh adjective, adverb, atau participle, yang berfungsi sebagai komplemen untuk kata kerja yang mengikuti :
Dependent principal
Hot as the sun is we must go out

g. Perbandingan
• Berbandingan yang tingkatnya sama
Sifat yang sama dibandingkan :
o she is as tall as I (am) = Ia setinggi saya
o he is as clever as you = Ia sepandai anda
sifat yang berbeda dibandingkan :
o she is a good as she is wise
sifat baiknya sama dengan sifat bijaksananya

• Yang tingkatannya tidak sama
Sifat yang sama dibandingkan
o He is more clever than I (am)
Sifat yang berbeda dibandingkan
o The sea is deeper than the mountains are high

h. Taraf atau cara
Principal dependent
The business will prosper according as it is judiciously managed
– The train hasn’t arrived yet as far as I know

i. Waktu
Principal dependent
She call on her neighbor as the clock struck six
I will go as soon as the comes
You can sit down while I stand
I will help you as long as I live
He studied very hard before he succeded
Wait here until I return
You must study hard are you can gain your end
I will go after he leaves
She has been much stronger since she recovered from her

REFERENSI/NARASUMBER :
Junaida,Suryadi.2007.”COMPLETE ENGLISH GRAMMAR”.Yogyakarta.Pustaka Pelajar.

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