DIRECT-INDIRECT SPEECH

DIRECT – INDIRECT SPEECH

Direct speech adalah kutipan asli suatu pembicaraan tanpa adanya suatu perubahan. Sedangkan indirect speech adalah bentuk kalimat laporan yang berguna untuk menceritakan kembali pembicaraan/pendapat seseorang yang mana mengalami modifikasi tertentu. Dibawah ini akan diberikan kepada anda materi direct-indirect speech secara lengkap.
1. DIRECT SPEECH
Cara penulisan direct speech selalu diapit oleh tanda kutip,kalimat selalu di awali huruf capital. Tanda titik dua (:) atau koma (,)diletakkan sebelum direct speech bilamana kata penghubung/pelapor (reporting vern)-nya berada dimuka,dan tanda koma (,)harus diletakkan setelah direct speech bilamana kata penghubung diletakkan setelah atau diantara direct speechnya. Tanda baca seperti tanda seru (!),tanda Tanya (?) yang menunjukkan jenis kalimat direct tidak mengalami perubahan.
2. INDIRECT SPEECH
Ada tiga jenis indirect speech :

A. Imperative (request)
Yang dilaporka adalah suatu perintah. Karena kalimat perintah biasanya tidak mengenal subject,maka verb dalam direct imperative tidak mengalami perubahan. Verb dalam indirect menjadi ‘to invinitive’.

Contoh 1 :
Direct : He said to his servant,”Go away at once”.
Indirect : He ordered his servant to go away at once.
Contoh 2 :
Direct : “Watch TV”.
Indirect : He told me to watch TV.

B. Declarative (statement)
1. Bila terdapat tenses maka penjabarannya sebagai berikut :

• Simple present tense menjadi simple past tense
Jika direct speech menggunakan simple present tense,maka indirect speech menggunakan simple past tense.
Contoh :
Direct : Linda said “I buy my dictionary at the book shop”.
Indirect : Linda said that she bought her dictionary at the book shop.

• Present continuous tense menjadi past continuous tense
Jika direct speech menggunakan present continuous tense maka indirect speech menggunakan past continuous tense.
Contoh :
Direct : She said “I’m doing my English homework”.
Indirect : She said that she was doing her English homework.

• Present perfect tense menjadi past perfect tense
Jika direct speech menggunakan present perfect tense maka indirect speech menggunakan past perfect tense.
Contoh :
Direct : John said”I have finished doing my reports”.
Indirect : John said that he had finished doing his reports.

• Present perfect continuous tense menjadi past perfect continuous tense
Jika direct speech menggunakan present continuous tense maka indirect speech menggunakan past perfect continuous tense.
Contoh :
Direct : He said “We have been living here for three years”.
Indirect : He said that they had been living there for three years.

• Simple past tense menjadi past perfect tense
Jika direct speech menggunakan simple past tense maka indirect speech menggunakan past perfect tense.
Contoh :
Direct : He said “I went to school yesterday”.
Indirect : He said that he had gone to school the day before.

• Future tense menjadi past future tense
Jika direct speech menggunakan simple future tense maka indirect speech menggunakan past future tense.
Contoh :
Direct : Laila said “We will leave for Singapore”.
Indirect : Laila said that they would leave for Singapore.

• Past continuous tense menjadi past perfect continuous tense
Jika direct speech menggunakan past continuous tense maka indirect speech menggunakan padt perfect continuous tense.
Conton :
Direct : He said “I was reading an English novels”.
Indirect : He said that he had been reading English novels.

2. Bila terdapat modal,maka penjelasannya adalah :

Direct : “Ica watch TV”.
: “I may watch TV”.
: “I must watch TV”.
Indirect : She said that she could watch TV
: She said that she might watch TV
: She said that she had to watch TV.

3. Bila terdapat interrogative sentence
a. Reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi ask atau inquire. Dengan mengulangi kata Tanya dan mengubah tense jika pertanyaan di mulai dengan kata Tanya.
Contoh :
Direct : He said to me,”where are you going?”
Indirect : He asked me where I was going.

b. Dengan menggunakan if/whether sebagai penghubung antara reporting verb dan reported speech dan mengulang tenses
Contoh :
Direct : He said to me,”Are you going away today?”
Indirect : He asked me whether I going today.

EXERCISE :

Complete the sentences in reported speech. Note the change of pronouns and tenses.

1. “ where is my umbrella?”she asked.
She asked……………………………………..
2. “ how are you?”Martin asked us.
Martin asked us…………………………
3. he asked,”Do I have to do it?”
he asked………………………………
4. “ where have you been?”the mother asked her daughter.
The mother asked her daughter………………………………………
5. “ which dress do you like best?”she asked her boyfriend.
She asked her boyfriend…………………………………………………
6. “ what are they doing?”she asked.
She wanted to know…………………..
7. “ Are you going to the cinema?”he asked me.
He wanted to know………………………………………
8. The teacher asked,”who speaks English?”
The teacher wanted to know…………………

ANSWER
1. She asked where her umbrella was.
2. Martin asked us how we were.
3. He asked if he had to do it.
4. The mother asked her daughter where she had been.
5. She asked her boyfriend which dress he liked best
6. She wanted to know what they were doing.
7. He wanted to know if I was going to the cinema.
8. The teacher wanted to know who spoke English.

REFERENSI/SUMBER :

Jack,Saharuddin H.2003,”THE EASIEST WAY OF COMPREHENDING ENGLISH GRAMMAR”.Jakarta.Batavia Press.
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/reported-speech/exercises?09
http://swarabhaskara.com/discussion-forum/tanya-jawab/direct-dan-indirect-object/

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